Die hier archivierte Mail kann, muss sich aber nicht auf den Themenkomplex von Oekonux beziehen.

Insbesondere kann nicht geschlossen werden, dass die hier geäußerten Inhalte etwas mit dem Projekt Oekonux oder irgendeiner TeilnehmerIn zu tun haben.


Message 00950 [Homepage] [Navigation]
Thread: choxT00950 Message: 1/1 L0 [In date index] [In thread index]
[First in Thread] [Last in Thread] [Date Next] [Date Prev]
[Next in Thread] [Prev in Thread] [Next Thread] [Prev Thread]

[chox] International Words.

International Words. ? 

In the widest sense, an international word is a word which occurs
in more than one national language. The German words Haus and
Automobil, for example, are identical with the English words house
and automobile despite slight differences in spelling and
pronunciation. Their meanings are of course essential parts of
them. If they were semantically distinct, as are English also and
German also for example, they could not be viewed as identical
words. There are two types of international words. German and
English Haus and house represent a type which owes its
international range to the common descent of two or more
languages; words of this type are international by cognateship in
the restricted sense of the term. On the other hand, the
internationalism of German and English Automobil and automobile is
due to the transition of words from one language to another; words
of this type, though sometimes loosely called cognates, should be
distinguished as international by loan and diffusion. In its most
comprehensive sense, the term "international word" would take in a
huge number of words which occur in but a very few languages of
minor significance. International words differ strikingly in their
range. From a practical point of view only those international
words need be considered which have a fairly wide range of
occurrence throughout the regions of the world inhabited by
peoples who participate in international intercourse and are
consequently apt to take an interest in its simplification. If
international words differ as to their range, they may likewise be
grouped as to their language of origin or "center of radiation."
There are important and unimportant centers of radiation, and
words of wide international range spring from either. The word
igloo for instance has a very respectable range. It occurs in
Eskimo, English, French, Russian, and in many other languages. But
Eskimo, from which the word stems, is not therefore a significant
center of radiation. Such minor "centers of radiation" can be
disregarded without a resulting loss of important items in the
international vocabulary provided it be ascertained that the
possible contributions of every disregarded center come into
consideration elsewhere. Neglecting the Eskimo center of radiation
will not imply the loss of the international word igloo, if
English, Russian, French, or any of the other languages which know
the word, are kept under observation. The restriction of the number
of languages examined with regard to their stock of international
words does not imply the exclusion of international words of all
sorts of remote origins from the resulting list. For practical
reasons the sphere in which "international words" are to be
collected must be restricted, but the purpose of getting together
the most generally international vocabulary possible can best be
served if the restricted sphere fulfills two requirements: first,
it must be a powerful center of radiation of international words,
one that has contributed largely to the stock of international
words throughout the rest of the world; secondly, it must have a
high degree of receptivity with regard to the material radiating
from other languages. As for the second of these requirements,
English represents a well-nigh ideal fulfillment of it. Hardly
another language can compete with English in its "receptive
power." Indeed, a list of words of wide international range
outside the orbit of English would include few important groups
with the possible exception of a fairly substantial vocabulary
"radiated" from the Islamic world to Spain, Eastern Europe, and
parts of Asia but not to the English-speaking world. The first
requirement, concerned with the power of radiation of
international words, is a more complex matter. There is no one
language that stands as far above all others in regard to the bulk
of its contributions to the international vocabulary as does
English in regard to its ability to assimilate foreign words. The
most important group of international words is doubtless the body
of technical terms in science and technology. In the large
majority of cases the international technical terminology is built
up of Latin and Greek or Greco-Latin elements. It is not on the
whole the contribution of any one language, not even of Greek and
Latin taken together, for it includes a considerable number of
terms which, though consisting of classical elements, were
completely unknown to the native speakers of both the classical
languages. Socrates spoke Greek all through his life but he never
used the telephone and did not know that the word for it comes
from his mother tongue. Words of this type may be grouped under the
head of their common origin in a kind of theoretical Neo-Latin
which is not spoken anywhere but appears unfolded in the several
contemporary Romance languages. Taken as a group and viewed as
joint executors of the Latin heritage and hence as representing
most fully the Neo-Latin source of most of the international
technical vocabulary, the Romance languages are the most potent
center of radiation of international words. " 

interlingua-ger - ...
INTERLNG - internationale Liste in InterLingua
http://www.interlingua.com (UMI)
http://www.interlingua.dk (Dänemark)
http://www.interlingua.fi (Finnland)
http://www.interlingua.it (Italien)
http://www.interlingua.no (Norwegen)
http://www.interlingua.nu (Schweden)

------- Ende der weitergeleiteten Nachricht / End of forwarded message -------

fwd wg. kontext zur diskussion um wörter, fachwörter, ... in ox.


[English translation]
Thread: choxT00950 Message: 1/1 L0 [In date index] [In thread index]
Message 00950 [Homepage] [Navigation]